main product of Sugar Industry is raw sugar.
A typical raw cane sugar contains sucrose (97.5%)
reducing sugar (0.86%) other organic compound (0.46%) ash
(0.43%) and water (0.75%).
Sugar Cane contains 11 to 15% sucrose out of which only
8 to 11% is crystalizable.
The remaining sucrose goes into by product along with
other sugars viz. Glucose and Fructose.
Baggase is the first by-product of
cane sugar production. The
fibrous residual matter left out
after extraction of sugar cane juice is known as
Baggase. It contains about 48.50% moisture, 48.0% fibre and
2.40% sugar and other minor constituents. It has been mainly
used as fuel in Boiler to raise steam.
Nowadays it can be used for paper production.
PRODUCTION FROM BAGASSE
Baggase is used as a raw material in the paper
leads in this industry. A Fungi called white-rot fungi
degrades the fibre to cellulose. Hemi cellulose and the
lignin. It is done in huge fermentation vessels
where the fungi is inoculated. After this preliminary
treatment , the material is washed and mixed with a 2 % NaOH
solution. This enables dissolution of lignins. The fibrous
matter is washed followed by pulping impresser digesters using
sodium sulphide. . sodium sulphide liquors for about 4 hours.
The pressure is released in tanks, followed by straining and
washing to remove the pith. The digested, washed, pulp is now
suitable for mixing with
other bamboo pulps to be used for paper making.
is obtained from the cane juice, which is used as manure.
In the process of clarification, the hot limed juice
is delivered to large setting tanks. It consists of
large tank with centrally placed slow moving agitator.
Horizontal compartments or trags enable mud to slow down, and
each having over flow take off for clarified juice.
The muds separating in the settling tanks are pumped to
rotary filters. Here
they are filtered under vacuum using some powdered bagasse (bagacillo)
as a filter aid. The
pH of the mud to be filtered will be around 7.5.
The temperature of sludge is maintained around 60 ° C
to enable effective filtration.
The cake is continuously washed on the filter and some
sugar is recovered here. The
cake is rich in protein and waxes.
is one of the important by-products , its production
depends on the total quantity of cane crushed as well as
quality, which varies from region to region . The increases in
the percentage of sucrose in molasses greatly affects the
final quantity of sugar.
Molasses is the final effluent obtained in the
preparation of sugar by repeated crystallization; it is the
heavy viscous liquid from which no further sugar can be
crystallized by the usual methods.
called as blackstrap molasses
because of its dark brown viscous nature. It must not contain
less than 40% of total sugar as invert.
The components of molasses include
components ( water, sugar ,non-sugars )
components ( Trace elements, vitamins, growth substance)
Commercial molasses have an average water content of
20% . The original end-products in the factory contain 12-17 %
The principal sugar present in the molasses are
sucrose, glucose and fructose the later two making up the
major portion of the reducing sugars. The alkaline degradation
of sucrose leads not only to glucose and fructose but also to
Psicose and other carbohydrates. Molasses sometimes contain
another non-reducing sugar namely
the trisaccharide ketose.